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Ethereum logo.jpg
Founded 2013
Headquarters Zug, Switzerland
Key People Vitalik Buterin, creator; Joseph Lubin, co-creator; Gavin Wood, programmer; Patrick Storchenegger, Legal Advisor
Employees 50-100
Products Ethereum, Ether
Twitter @ethereum
LinkedIn Profile
Facebook Ethereum
Blog Ethereum's official blog

Ethereum, or Ether (ETH), is both a cryptocurrency and a decentralized application platform (dApp).[1]


Ethereum runs on a peer-to-peer network of computers. This network constantly runs applications designed to allow nodes, or individual computers in the network to contribute to the network's total processing power by mining Ether, the cryptocurrency. While these computer programs can take many different forms, the network is designed to carry out rules that mechanically execute when certain conditions are met - like a contract that is automatically executed by a computer; these are called smart contracts. Ethereum also has its own distributed ledger, which is based on bitcoin's blockchain architecture, and uses cryptography to store, execute, and protect these contracts.[2]

Ethereum is also a Turing complete programming language, used to help developers and publishers build and publish dApps.[3]

The platform launched Frontier, the network's first live release, a year later, in July of 2015.[4] It was described by Ethereum's creators as "first in a series of releases that punctuate the roadmap for the development of Ethereum."[5]

Mainstream support for Ethereum

Support for Ethereum has been strong. Forbes called the Ethereum network "great for innovation."[6] A collection of Fortune 500 companies known as the Enterprise Ethereum Alliance have pledged to help each other develop the Ethereum platform and further "smart contract" technology. This group includes the National Bank of Canada, Cisco, American Family Insurance, CME Group, Toyota Research Institute, Mastercard, and Microsoft.[7][8]


In October 2018, Ethereum's system-wide upgrade, dubbed "Constantinople," was announced. The upgrade includes the integration of five separate "Ethereum improvement proposals" (EIPs), which are proposals for upgrades to the Ethereum protocol drafted by members of the Ethereum community. This upgrade will likely result in a "hard fork," though it will not lead to a separate cryptocurrency, like the fork that created Ethereum Classic.[9] Originally planned for November, Ethereum core developers agreed on October 19 to delay Constantinople until January 2019.[10]

The new upgrade includes the integration of the following EIPs:[11]

EIP 145: The integration of "bitwise shifting," a type of information processing designed to improve upon Ethereum's existing information processing methods (authored by Ethereum developers Alex Beregszaszi and Pawel Bylica).

EIP 1052: A technical upgrade designed to improve large-scale code execution on the Ethereum platform - in layman's terms, this means that Ethereum can execute a single type of command simultaneously across the platform with a lower risk of causing a system crash (authored by Nick Johnson and Pawel Bylica).

EIP 1283: Introduces a new pricing model for smart contract developers (authored by Nick Johnson).

EIP 1014: Integrates a new method of scaling for Ethereum (authored by Vitalik Buterin).

EIP 1234: Reduces rewards for block mining from 3 ETH to 2 ETH, in order to reduce the inflation of Ether.[12] It also delays the execution of Ethereum's "difficulty bomb," or an upgrade to Ethereum's mining protocols that makes Ether harder to mine (authored by Afri Schoedon).[13]

On January 14, 2019, the Constantinople upgrade was delayed after a major security vulnerability was discovered by ChainSecurity, a smart contract firm. ChainSecurity representatives warned Ethereum developers that if EIP 1283 was implemented, loopholes in the upgrade's code would allow hackers to steal funds from users. Developers including Vitalik Buterin, Hudson Jameson, Nick Johnson, and Evan Van Ness unanimously agreed to delay the upgrade and plan a new fork date on January 18, 2019.[14] Following news of the delay, several major clients of Ethereum, including Go-Ethereum (Geth) and Parity, released software updates giving users the ability to upgrade to new versions of their products that were planned to coincide with the release of Constantinople. They gave their clients the option to downgrade to pre-upgrade versions of their Ethereum-based platforms but firmly recommended against it.[15]

Core Ethereum developers including Buterin, Hudson Jameson, Lane Rettig, Afri Schoedon, Péter Szilágyi, Martin Holste Swende, Danny Ryan, Alexey Akhuno, and others attended a conference call on January 18th to discuss the upgrade. The developers decided to postpone activating the Constantinople hard fork until sometime between February 26th and 28th in 2019.[16]


The SEC began in May of 2018 to look into whether Ether should fall under its authority as a security. Unlike bitcoin, which was determined to be a commodity because it held no pre-launch ICO, Ethereum's blockchain network was funded through a presale of Ether. Also, following the sale, there was no single, central enterprise being invested in, which complicates the question of how to classify Ether.[17]

In June 2018 William Hinman, the SEC's director of the division of corporation finance, stated, “Putting aside the fundraising that accompanied the creation of Ether, based on my understanding of the present state of Ether, the Ethereum network and its decentralized structure, current offers and sales of Ether are not securities transactions.”[18]

In December, the CFTC released an official Request for Information (RFI) to the public. The RFI stated that its purpose was to "seek public comment and feedback in order to better inform the Commission's understanding of the technology, mechanics, and markets for virtual currencies beyond bitcoin, namely Ether and its use in the Ethereum Network." The RFI specified that information gathered through the RFI would be considered in future efforts to provide oversight and regulation to the digital asset markets. It also gave three methods members of the public could use to deliver their comments to the Commission, including a mailing address and a link to its public comments website (NOTE: the Public Information Collection category for Ether may not appear on the site until the 17th of December).[19][20]


The white paper for Ethereum was created by Vitalik Buterin, a Canadian programmer and co-founder of Bitcoin Magazine, in 2013.[21][22][23] After its release, additional developers signed on to the project, including Gavin Wood. Together, they and other founders launched a crowdfunding campaign in July of 2014 in which investors purchased Ethereum digital tokens (Ether) to serve as shares in Ethereum. They raised $18 million from this campaign.[24]

Key People


  1. Understanding Ethereum. The New York Times.
  2. Ethereum: The Ultimate Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform. Web Archive.
  3. Who Will Pay for Turing-Complete Smart Contracts?. Coindesk.
  4. Welcome to Frontier!. Ethereum Foundation via Gitbooks.
  5. Ethereum Frontier release: Introduction. Ethereum Foundation via Gitbooks.
  6. How Is Ethereum Different From Bitcoin?. Forbes.
  7. EEA Members. Enterprise Ethereum Alliance.
  8. How Is Ethereum Different From Bitcoin?. Forbes.
  9. Constantinople Nears: Ethereum's Next Hard Fork Is On Track for 2018. Coindesk.
  10. Ethereum Devs Reach Consensus to Delay Constantinople Hard Fork Until January 2019. Coin Telegraph.
  11. Constantinople Ahead: What You Need to Know About Ethereum's Big Upgrade. Coindesk.
  12. Ethereum's Difficulty Bomb: All Smoke, No Fire?. Bloomberg.
  13. Ethereum's Difficulty Bomb: All Smoke, No Fire?. Coindesk.
  14. Ethereum’s Constantinople Upgrade Faces Delay Due to Security Vulnerability. Coindesk.
  15. Ethereum Clients Release New Software In Wake of Hard Fork Delay. Coindesk.
  16. Ethereum Devs Propose Activating Constantinople Hard Fork in Late February. Coindesk.
  17. SEC decision on Ethereum cryptocurrency could affect others funded by ICOs. Computerworld.
  18. U.S. SEC official says ether not a security, price surges. Reuters.
  19. CFTC Seeks Public Comments on Crypto-asset Mechanics and Markets. CFTC.
  20. Request for Input on Crypto-asset Mechanics and Markets. CFTC.
  21. Who Created Ethereum?. Coindesk.
  22. A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform. Github.
  23. Ethereum whitepaper from Dec 2013. Twitter.
  24. Who Created Ethereum?. Coindesk.